English Pronunciation


The following have their usual English values: b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, and z.  Other symbols are used as follows:

g get   x loch   ð this   j yes   θ thin
chip   ŋ ring   ʃ she   jar   ʒ decision


Short Vowels Long Vowels Diphthongs Tripthongs
(ː indicates length)
æ cat   ɑː arm   my   aɪə fire
ɛ bed   ɛː hair   how   aʊə sour
ə ago   əː her   day
ɪ sit   see   əʊ no
i cosy   ɔː saw   ɪə near
ɒ hot   too   ɔɪ boy
ʌ run         ʊə poor
ʊ put

ə before /l/, /m/, or /n/ indicates that the syllable may be realized with a syllabic l, m, or n, rather than with a vowel and a consonant, e.g. /'bʌtən/ rather than /'bʌtən/.

(r) indicates an r that is sometimes sounded when a vowel follows, as in drawer, cha-chaing.


The mark ' before a syllable indicates that it is stressed.  Secondary stress is shown by the mark ˌ before a syllable.

Foreign pronunciations

Foreign words and phrases, whether naturalized or not, are always given an anglicized pronunciation.  The anglicized pronunciation represents the normal pronunciation used by native speakers of standard English when using the word in an English context. However, it is difficult to show the typical pronunciation of some commonly used French words by means of standard English vowel symbols, and for that reason the following nasalized vowels have been used:

au gratin
ɒ̃ bouffant
ɑ̃ chanson
ɔ̃ frisson