WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2020
fall /fɔl/USA pronunciation   v.,  fell/fɛl/USA pronunciation  fall•en, fall•ing, n. 
v. [no object]
  1. to drop or come down under the force of gravity:The apple fell from the tree.
  2. to come or drop down suddenly to a lower position, esp. to leave a standing or erect position suddenly:I fell to my knees.
  3. to become less or lower;
    decline:The temperature fell rapidly.
  4. to grow less powerful or forceful;
    subside or abate:The wind fell.
  5. to extend downward;
    hang down:Her hair fell to her waist.
  6. to become lowered or directed downward:Her eyes fell as she began to explain why she had stolen the money.
  7. to give in to temptation or sin, esp. to become unchaste:He had fallen into sin.
  8. to give in and lose to an attack:The city fell to the enemy.
  9. to be overthrown, such as a government:The dictatorship had finally fallen.
  10. to drop down wounded or dead, esp. to be killed:fallen in battle.
  11. to pass into some physical, mental, or emotional condition:to fall into a coma.
  12. to come or occur as if by dropping, such as stillness or night:The sun went down and night fell rapidly.
  13. to come by lot or chance:The chore fell to me.
  14. See fall to below.
  15. to come to pass or occur at a certain time:Christmas falls on a Monday this year.
  16. to have its proper place:The accent falls on the last syllable.
  17. to come by right:The inheritance fell to the only living relative.
  18. to lose animation;
    appear disappointed or dismayed:The child's face fell when the bird flew away.
  19. to slope or extend in a downward direction:The field falls gently to the river.
  20. fall back, [no object] to give way;
    retreat:The troops fell back to their fortified positions.
  21. fall back on or  upon, [+ back + on/upon + object] to have recourse to;
    rely on:We had no savings to fall back on.
  22. fall behind, [no object]
    • to lag in pace or progress:to fall behind in their studies.
    • to fail to pay one's debts on time.
  23. Slang Termsfall for, [+ for + object]
    • to be deceived by:I can't believe you would fall for an old trick like that.
    • to fall in love with:He had fallen for her pretty badly.
  24. fall in with, [+ in + with + object] to start to associate with:to fall in with bad company.
  25. fall off, [no object] to decrease in number, amount, or intensity;
    diminish:The winds fell off once the storm passed.
  26. fall on or  upon, [+ on/upon + object]
    • to assault:The gang fell on their rivals with knives and chains.
    • to become the obligation or duty of:The welfare of the family fell on me.
    • to experience or come upon:Once again we had fallen on bad times.
  27. fall out: 
    • [+ out (+ with + object)] to quarrel;
      disagree:They had fallen out only a week before their wedding.
    • [no object] to come out:His hair fell out after a few weeks of chemotherapy.
  28. fall over: 
    • [no object] to collapse:fell over in a faint.
  29. fall through, [no object] to fail to be accomplished;
    collapse:My plans kept falling through.
  30. fall to, [+ verb-ing] to apply oneself;
    begin:They fell to bickering among themselves.
  31. fall under, [+ under + object]
    • to be the concern or responsibility of:The ESL program fell under his jurisdiction.
    • to be classified as;
      be included within:This crime falls under the category of murder.

n. 
  1. an act or instance of falling or dropping from a higher to a lower place or position:[countable]a rapid fall in prices.
  2. something that falls or drops:[countable]a heavy fall of rain.
  3. [uncountable;  often: the + ~] the season of the year that comes after summer and before winter;
    autumn.
  4. a sinking to a lower level;
    decline:[countable;  usually singular]the fall of an empire.
  5. the distance through which anything falls:[countable]a long fall to the ground.
  6. GeographyUsually,  falls. [plural] a waterfall.
  7. a downward slope:[countable]the gentle rise and fall of the meadow.
  8. a falling from an erect position, such as to the ground:[countable]She had a bad fall and broke her arm.
  9. [countable;  usually singular] a succumbing to temptation;
    lapse into sin.
  10. [countable] surrender or capture, such as of a city.

WordReference Random House Learner's Dictionary of American English © 2020
short /ʃɔrt/USA pronunciation   adj.,  -er, -est, adv., n., v. 
adj. 
  1. having little length or height:the shortest boy in class.
  2. extending only a little way:a short path.
  3. brief:a short time.
  4. rudely brief;
    abrupt:surprised by his short reply.
  5. low in amount or number:short rations.
  6. not reaching a standard, level, etc.;
    deficient:The pound of apples that you bought was short by several ounces.
  7. made with a large amount of shortening:short pastry.
  8. not having enough;
    lacking:[often: ~ + [on/in] + object]always short on money.
  9. Phonetics
    • having the sound of the English vowels in bat, bet, bit, hot, but, and put, historically descended from vowels that were short in duration.

adv. 
  1. abruptly or suddenly:to stop short.
  2. briefly;
    curtly.
  3. on the near side of a point:The arrow landed short.

n. [countable]
  1. something short.
  2. Businessshorts, [plural]
    • Clothingtrousers, knee-length or shorter.
    • Clothingunderpants.
  3. Electricityshort circuit.

v. 
  1. to form a short circuit (in): [ + obj]:The frayed wire shorted the connection.[ no obj]:The car kept shorting.
Idioms
  1. Idiomscome or fall short, [no object]
    • to fail to reach a standard, level, etc.:The arrow fell short of the target.
    • to be lacking:We came up short in our bid for the painting.
  2. Idiomscut short, [no object] to end abruptly;
    terminate.
  3. Idiomsfor short, as a shorter way of saying or naming something:Barbara was called Barb for short.
  4. Idiomsin short: 
    • in summary;
      stated or said briefly:In short, gentlemen, we know what we're going to do.

short•ness, n. [uncountable]

WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2020
fall  (fôl),USA pronunciation  v.,  fell, fall•en, fall•ing, n. 
v.i. 
  1. to drop or descend under the force of gravity, as to a lower place through loss or lack of support.
  2. to come or drop down suddenly to a lower position, esp. to leave a standing or erect position suddenly, whether voluntarily or not:to fall on one's knees.
  3. to become less or lower;
    become of a lower level, degree, amount, quality, value, number, etc.;
    decline:The temperature fell ten degrees. Stock prices fell to a new low for the year.
  4. to subside or abate.
  5. extend downward;
    hang down:Her hair falls to her shoulders.
  6. to become lowered or directed downward, as the eyes:My eyes fell before his steady gaze.
  7. to become lower in pitch or volume:Her voice fell, and she looked about in confusion.
  8. to succumb to temptation or sin, esp. to become unchaste or to lose one's innocence.
  9. to lose status, dignity, position, character, etc.
  10. to succumb to attack:The city fell to the enemy.
  11. to be overthrown, as a government.
  12. to drop down wounded or dead, esp. to be slain:to fall in battle.
  13. to pass into some physical, mental, or emotional condition:to fall asleep; to fall in love.
  14. to envelop or come as if by dropping, as stillness or night.
  15. to issue forth:Witty remarks fall easily from his lips.
  16. to come by lot or chance:The chore fell to him.
  17. to come by chance into a particular position:to fall among thieves.
  18. to come to pass, occur, or become at a certain time:Christmas falls on a Monday this year. The rent falls due the first of every month.
  19. to have its proper place:The accent falls on the last syllable.
  20. to come by right:The inheritance fell to the only living relative.
  21. to be naturally divisible (usually fol. by into):The story fell into two distinct parts.
  22. to lose animation;
    appear disappointed, as the face:His face fell when he heard the bad news.
  23. to slope or extend in a downward direction:The field falls gently to the river.
  24. to be directed, as light, sight, etc., on something:His eyes fell upon the note on the desk.
  25. to collapse, as through weakness, damage, poor construction, or the like;
    topple or sink:The old tower fell under its own weight. The cake fell when he slammed the oven door.
  26. Animal Husbandry(of an animal, esp. a lamb) to be born:Two lambs fell yesterday.

v.t. 
  1. to fell (a tree, animal, etc.).
  2. Idiomsfall all over oneself, to show unusual or excessive enthusiasm or eagerness, esp. in the hope of being favored or rewarded:The young trainees fell all over themselves to praise the boss's speech.Also,  fall over oneself. 
  3. fall away: 
    • to withdraw support or allegiance:The candidate's supporters fell away when he advocated racial discrimination.
    • to become lean or thin;
      diminish;
      decline.
    • to forsake one's faith, cause, or principles:Many fell away because they were afraid of reprisals.
  4. fall back, to give way;
    recede;
    retreat:The relentless shelling forced the enemy to fall back.
  5. fall back on or  upon: 
    • Also,  fall back to. to retreat to:They fell back on their entrenchments. The troops fell back to their original position.
    • to have recourse to;
      rely on:They had no savings to fall back on.
  6. fall behind: 
    • to lag, in pace or progress:We are falling behind in our work. Fatigued, some of the marchers fell behind.
    • to fail to pay (a debt, obligation, etc.) at the appointed time:She fell behind in her tax payments, and the property was confiscated.
  7. Informal Termsfall down, to perform disappointingly;
    to disappoint;
    fail:He was doing well on the exam until he fell down on the last essay question.
  8. Slang Termsfall for: 
    • to be deceived by:Imagine falling for such an old trick.
    • to fall in love with:He's not at all the type you would expect her to fall for.
  9. Idiomsfall foul or  afoul of. See  foul (def. 20).
  10. fall in: 
    • to fall to pieces toward the interior;
      sink inward.
    • to take one's place in the ranks, as a soldier.
    • Also,  fall in with. to become acquainted with, esp. by chance:We fell in with an interesting couple from Paris.
  11. fall off: 
    • to separate from;
      withdraw.
    • to decrease in number, amount, or intensity;
      diminish:Tourism falls off when the summer is over.
    • [Naut.]to deviate from the heading;
      fall to leeward.
    • Dialect Terms[South Midland and Southern U.S.]to lose weight, usually due to illness:She was sick all winter and fell off till she was just skin and bones.
  12. Slang Terms, Idiomsfall off the roof, Slang (older use). to menstruate.
  13. fall on or  upon: 
    • to assault;
      attack:The enemy fell on them suddenly from the rear.
    • to be the obligation of:It has fallen on me to support the family.
    • to experience;
      encounter:Once well-to-do, they had fallen on hard times.
    • to chance upon;
      come upon:I fell upon the idea while looking through a magazine.
  14. Idiomsfall on one's feet. See  land (def. 25).
  15. fall out: 
    • to quarrel;
      disagree:We fell out over who was to wash the dishes.
    • to happen;
      occur:It fell out that we met by chance weeks later.
    • to leave one's place in the ranks, as a soldier:They were ordered to fall out when the parade ended.
    • Slang Termsto burst out laughing.
    • Dialect Terms[South Midland and Southern U.S.]to become unconscious;
      pass out.
  16. Stock Exchange, Idiomsfall out of bed, to get out of bed quickly.
  17. Idiomsfall over backward(s). 
    • See  bend (def. 15).
    • to exhibit great eagerness, esp. in pursuit of one's own advantage:The candidate fell over backward in support of the issues that would win votes.
  18. Idiomsfall or  come short. See  short (def. 30).
  19. fall through, to come to nothing;
    fail of realization:Despite all his efforts, the deal fell through.
  20. fall to: 
    • to apply oneself;
      begin:to fall to work.
    • to begin to eat:They fell to and soon finished off the entire turkey.
  21. fall under: 
    • to be the concern or responsibility of.
    • to be classified as;
      be included within:That case falls under the heading of errors of judgment.

n. 
  1. an act or instance of falling or dropping from a higher to a lower place or position.
  2. that which falls or drops:a heavy fall of rain.
  3. the season of the year that comes after summer and before winter;
    autumn.
  4. a becoming less;
    a lowering or decline;
    a sinking to a lower level:the fall of the Roman Empire.
  5. the distance through which anything falls:It is a long fall to the ground from this height.
  6. GeographyUsually,  falls. a cataract or waterfall.
  7. downward slope or declivity:the gentle rise and fall of the meadow.
  8. a falling from an erect position, as to the ground:to have a bad fall.
  9. a hanging down:a fall of long hair.
  10. a succumbing to temptation;
    lapse into sin.
  11. Religionthe Fall, (sometimes l.c.)[Theol.]the lapse of human beings into a state of natural or innate sinfulness through the sin of Adam and Eve.
  12. Slang Termsan arrest by the police.
  13. surrender or capture, as of a city.
  14. proper place:the fall of an accent on a syllable.
  15. Sport[Wrestling.]
    • an act or instance of holding or forcing an opponent's shoulders against the mat for a specified length of time.
    • a match or division of a match.
  16. Clothinga hairpiece consisting of long hair that is attached to one's own hair at the crown and usually allowed to hang freely down the back of the head so as to cover or blend with the natural hair.
  17. Clothingan opaque veil hanging loose from the back of a hat.
  18. ClothingSee  falling band. 
  19. Clothinga decorative cascade of lace, ruffles, or the like.
  20. Mechanical Engineering, Nautical, Naval Terms[Mach., Naut.]the part of the rope of a tackle to which the power is applied in hoisting.
  21. Sport[Hunting.]a deadfall.
  22. the long soft hair that hangs over the forehead and eyes of certain terriers.
  23. [Armor.]a pivoted peak projecting over the face opening of a burgonet.
  24. Astrologythe sign of the zodiac in which the most negative influence of a planet is expressed (as opposed to exaltation).
  25. Miningrock or ore that has collapsed from a roof, hanging wall, or the sides of a passage.
  • bef. 900; Middle English fallen, Old English feallan; cognate with German fallen, Old Norse falla; akin to Lithuanian pùlti to fall

Fall  (fôl),USA pronunciation n. 
  • BiographicalAlbert Bacon, 1861–1944, U.S. politician: senator 1912–21;
    secretary of the Interior 1921–23;
    convicted in Teapot Dome scandal.

  • Fall, The, 
  • Literature(French, La Chute), a novel (1957) by Albert Camus.

  • WordReference Random House Unabridged Dictionary of American English © 2020
    short  (shôrt),USA pronunciation adj.,  -er, -est, adv., n., v. 
    adj. 
    1. having little length;
      not long.
    2. having little height;
      not tall:a short man.
    3. extending or reaching only a little way:a short path.
    4. brief in duration;
      not extensive in time:a short wait.
    5. brief or concise, as writing.
    6. rudely brief;
      abrupt;
      hurting:short behavior.
    7. low in amount;
      scanty:short rations.
    8. not reaching a point, mark, target, or the like;
      not long enough or far enough.
    9. below the standard in extent, quantity, duration, etc.:short measure.
    10. having a scanty or insufficient amount of (often fol. by in or on):He was short in experience.
    11. being below a necessary or desired level;
      lacking:The office is short due to winter colds and flu.
    12. Food[Cookery.]
      • (of pastry and the like) crisp and flaky;
        breaking or crumbling readily from being made with a large proportion of butter or other shortening.
      • (of dough) containing a relatively large amount of shortening.
    13. Metallurgy(of metals) deficient in tenacity;
      friable;
      brittle.
    14. Anatomy, Physical Anthropology(of the head or skull) of less than ordinary length from front to back.
    15. Stock Exchange, Business
      • Businessnot possessing at the time of sale commodities or stocks that one sells.
      • Businessnoting or pertaining to a sale of commodities or stocks that the seller does not possess, depending for profit on a decline in prices.
    16. Phonetics
      • lasting a relatively short time:"Bit'' has a shorter vowel-sound than "bid'' or "bead.''
      • belonging to a class of sounds considered as usually shorter in duration than another class, as the vowel of but as compared to that of bought, and in many languages serving as a distinctive feature of phonemes, as the a in German Bann in contrast with the ah in Bahn, or the t in Italian fato in contrast with the tt in fatto (opposed to long).
      • having the sound of the English vowels in bat, bet, bit, hot, but, and put, historically descended from vowels that were short in duration.
    17. Poetry[Pros.]
      • Poetry(of a syllable in quantitative verse) lasting a relatively shorter time than a long syllable.
      • unstressed.
    18. Wine(of an alcoholic drink) small:a short drink.
    19. British Terms[Chiefly Brit.](of whiskey) undiluted;
      straight.
    20. Ceramics(of clay) not plastic enough to be modeled.
    21. Textiles[Ropemaking.]hard (def. 39).
    22. short and sweet: 
      • pleasantly brief.
      • pertinent:We're in a hurry, so make it short and sweet.
    23. short for, being a shorter form of;
      abbreviated to:"Phone'' is short for "telephone.''
    24. short of: 
      • less than;
        inferior to.
      • inadequately supplied with (money, food, etc.).
      • without going to the length of;
        failing of;
        excluding:Short of murder, there is nothing he wouldn't have tried to get what he wanted.
    25. make short work of. See  work (def. 16).

    adv. 
    1. abruptly or suddenly:to stop short.
    2. briefly;
      curtly.
    3. on the near side of an intended or particular point:The arrow landed short.
    4. Sport[Baseball.]
      • with the hands higher on the handle of the bat than usual:He held the bat short and flied out.
      • in a fielding position closer to home plate than usual.
    5. come or  fall short: 
      • to fail to reach a particular standard.
      • to prove insufficient;
        be lacking:Her funds fell short, and she had to wire home for help.
    6. cut short, to end abruptly;
      terminate:Her nap was cut short by a loud noise from outside.
    7. run short, to be in insufficient supply:My patience is running short.
    8. Businesssell short: 
      • Business[Stock Exchange.]to sell stocks or the like without having them in one's actual possession at the time of the sale.
      • to disparage or underestimate:Don't sell Tom short; he's really an excellent engineer.

    n. 
    1. something that is short.
    2. that which is deficient or lacking.
    3. the sum and substance of a matter;
      gist (usually prec. by the).
    4. Businessshorts: 
      • Clothingtrousers, knee-length or shorter.
      • Clothingshort pants worn by men as an undergarment.
      • Clothingknee breeches, formerly worn by men.
      • [Finance.]short-term bonds.
      • [Mining.]crushed ore failing to pass through a given screen, thus being of a larger given size than a specific grade. Cf.  fine (def. 29a).
      • remnants, discards, or refuse of various cutting and manufacturing processes.
    5. Clothinga size of garment for men who are shorter than average:He wears a 42 short.
    6. Clothinga garment, as a suit or overcoat, in such a size.
    7. Militarya shot that strikes or bursts short of the target.
    8. ElectricitySee  short circuit. 
    9. Poetry, Linguistics[Pros.]a short sound or syllable.
    10. Sport[Baseball.]shortstop (def. 1).
    11. Show Business[Motion Pictures.]See  short subject. 
    12. Business[Finance.]See  short seller. 
    13. a deficiency or the amount of a deficiency.
    14. British Terms[Chiefly Brit.]a small drink of straight whiskey;
      shot.
    15. for short, by way of abbreviation:Her name is Patricia, and she's called Pat for short.
    16. in short: 
      • in summary.
      • in few words;
        in brief:In short, this has been rather a disappointing day.

    v.t. 
    1. to cause a short circuit in.
    2. to cheat by giving less than is expected or deserved;
      shortchange.

    v.i. 
    1. to short-circuit.
    shortness, n. 
    • bef. 900; Middle English schort (adjective, adjectival), Old English sceort; cognate with Old High German scurz short, Old Norse skortr shortness, scarcity
      • 4.See corresponding entry in Unabridged Short, brief are opposed to long, and indicate slight extent or duration.
        Short may imply duration but is also applied to physical distance and certain purely spatial relations:a short journey.Brief refers esp. to duration of time:brief intervals.
      • 5.See corresponding entry in Unabridged terse, succinct, laconic, condensed.
      • 6.See corresponding entry in Unabridged curt, sharp, testy.
      • 7.See corresponding entry in Unabridged poor, deficient, inadequate, wanting, lacking.
      • 12.See corresponding entry in Unabridged crumbly.
      • 14.See corresponding entry in Unabridged brachycephalic.
      • 3, 4.See corresponding entry in Unabridged long.

    Collins Concise English Dictionary © HarperCollins Publishers::
    fall /fɔːl/ vb (falls, falling, fell /fɛl/, fallen /ˈfɔːlən/)(mainly intr)
    1. to descend by the force of gravity from a higher to a lower place
    2. to drop suddenly from an erect position
    3. to collapse to the ground, esp in pieces
    4. to become less or lower in number, quality, etc: prices fell in the summer
    5. to become lower in pitch
    6. to extend downwards: her hair fell to her waist
    7. to be badly wounded or killed
    8. to slope in a downward direction
    9. to yield to temptation or sin
    10. to diminish in status, estimation, etc
    11. to yield to attack: the city fell under the assault
    12. to lose power: the government fell after the riots
    13. to pass into or take on a specified condition: to fall asleep, fall in love
    14. to adopt a despondent expression: her face fell
    15. to be averted: her gaze fell
    16. to come by chance or presumption: suspicion fell on the butler
    17. to occur; take place: night fell, Easter falls early this year
    18. followed by back, behind, etc: to move in a specified direction
    19. to occur at a specified place: the accent falls on the last syllable
    20. (followed by to) to return (to); be inherited (by): the estate falls to the eldest son
    21. often followed by into, under, etc: to be classified or included: the subject falls into two main areas
    22. to issue forth: a curse fell from her lips
    23. (transitive) Austral NZ dialect to fell (trees)
    24. (of a batsman's wicket) to be taken by the bowling side: the sixth wicket fell for 96
    25. fall shortto prove inadequate
    26. (often followed by of) to fail to reach or measure up to (a standard)
    n
    1. an act or instance of falling
    2. something that falls: a fall of snow
    3. chiefly US autumn
    4. the distance that something falls: a hundred-foot fall
    5. a sudden drop from an upright position
    6. (often plural) a waterfall or cataract
    7. (capital when part of a name): Niagara Falls
    8. a downward slope or decline
    9. a decrease in value, number, etc
    10. a decline in status or importance
    11. a capture or overthrow: the fall of the city
    12. the end of a tackle to which power is applied to hoist it

    13. Also called: pinfall a scoring move, pinning both shoulders of one's opponent to the floor for a specified period
    14. the birth of an animal
    15. the animals produced at a single birth

    See also fall about, fall apartEtymology: Old English feallan; related to Old Norse falla, Old Saxon, Old High German fallan to fall; see fell²
    'fall short' also found in these entries (note: many are not synonyms or translations):
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