and

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 strong: [ˈænd], weak: [ənd]


WordReference Collins English Usage © 2019
and
And can be used to link noun phrases, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, or clauses.
used for linking noun phrases
When you are talking about two things or people, you put and between two noun phrases.
I had a cup of tea and a biscuit.
The story is about a friendship between a boy and a girl.
When you are linking more than two noun phrases, you usually only put and in front of the last one.
They had fish, potatoes, and peas for dinner.
We need to build more roads, bridges and airports.
In lists like these, the comma before and is optional.
Punctuation
used for linking adjectives
You put and between two adjectives when they come after linking verbs such as be, seem, and feel.
The room was large and square.
She felt cold and tired.
When there are more than two adjectives after a linking verb, you usually only put and in front of the last one.
We felt hot, tired, and thirsty.
The child is outgoing, happy and busy.
In lists like these, the comma before and is optional.
Punctuation
When you use two or more adjectives in front of a noun, you don't usually put and between them.
She was wearing a beautiful pink dress.
We made rapid technological advance.
However, if the adjectives are colour adjectives, you must use and.
I bought a black and white swimming suit.
Similarly, if you are using adjectives that classify a noun in a similar way, you use and.
This is a social and educational dilemma.
You also use and when you put adjectives in front of a plural noun in order to talk about groups of things that have different or opposite qualities.
Both large and small firms deal with each other regularly.
Be careful
Don't use ‘and’ to link adjectives when you want them to contrast with each other. For example, don't say ‘We were tired and happy’. You say ‘We were tired but happy’.
They stayed in a small but comfortable hotel.
used for linking adverbs
You can use and to link adverbs.
Mary was breathing quietly and evenly.
They walked up and down, smiling.
used for linking verbs
You use and to link verbs when you are talking about actions performed by the same person, thing, or group.
I was shouting and swearing.
They sat and chatted.
If you want to say that someone does something repeatedly or for a long time, you can use and after a verb, and then repeat the verb.
They laughed and laughed.
Isaac didn't give up. He tried and tried.
In conversation, you can sometimes use and after try or wait instead of using a to-infinitive clause. For example, instead of saying ‘I’ll try to get a newspaper', you say ‘I’ll try and get a newspaper'. In sentences like these you are describing one action, not two.
I'll try and answer the question.
I prefer to wait and see how things go.
You only use and like this when you are using a future form of try or wait, or when you are using the infinitive or imperative form.
If you go and do something or come and do something, you move from one place to another in order to do it.
I'll go and see him in the morning.
Would you like to come and stay with us?
used for linking clauses
And is often used to link clauses.
I came here in 1972 and I have lived here ever since.
When you are giving advice or a warning, you can use and to say what will happen if something is done. For example, instead of saying ‘If you go by train, you’ll get there quicker', you can say ‘Go by train and you’ll get there quicker'.
Do as you're told and you'll be all right.
You can put and at the beginning of a sentence when you are writing down what someone said, or writing in a conversational style.
I didn't mean to scare you. And I'm sorry I'm late.
leaving out repeated words
When you are linking verb phrases that contain the same auxiliary verb, you don't need to repeat the auxiliary verb.
John had already showered and changed.
Similarly, when you are linking nouns that have the same adjective, preposition, or determiner in front of them, you don't need to repeat the adjective, preposition, or determiner.
My mother and father worked hard.
‘both’ for emphasis
When you link two phrases using and, you can emphasize that what you are saying applies to both phrases by putting both in front of the first phrase.
They feel both anxiety and joy.
➜ See both
negative sentences
You don't normally use ‘and’ to link groups of words in negative sentences. For example, don't say ‘She never reads and listens to stories’. You say ‘She never reads or listens to stories’.
He was not exciting or good looking.
➜ See or
However, you use and when you are talking about the possibility of two actions happening at the same time. For example, you say ‘I can’t think and talk at the same time'. You also use and if two noun phrases occur so frequently together that they are regarded as a single item. For example, knife and fork are always joined by and even in negative sentences such as ‘I haven’t got my knife and fork'.
Unions haven't taken health and safety seriously.
When two noun phrases are regarded as a single item like this, they almost always occur in a fixed order. For example, you talk about your knife and fork, not your ‘fork and knife’.
'and' also found in these entries:
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